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365bet体育|美国政府为无人驾驶汽车敞开大门

2020-10-15 20:13:01

365bet体育:WASHINGTON — Federal auto safety regulators on Monday made it official: They are betting the nation’s highways will be safer with more cars driven by machines and not people.华盛顿——联邦汽车安全监管机构周一月宣告:它们指出,美国公路上的车辆更好地由机器驾驶员时将比由人驾驶员更加安全性。In long-awaited guidelines for the booming industry of automated vehicles, the Obama administration promised strong safety oversight, but sent a clear signal to automakers that the door was wide open for driverless cars.自动汽车行业于是以蓬勃发展,在这份人们期望良久的行业指导意见中,奥巴马政府允诺要展开强有力的安全监管,但也向汽车厂商收到了一个明晰的信号:面向无人驾驶汽车的大门是几乎打开的。We envision in the future, you can take your hands off the wheel, and your commute becomes restful or productive instead of frustrating and exhausting, said Jeffrey Zients, director of the National Economic Council, adding that highly automated vehicles will save time, money and lives.我们设想,在未来,大家可以把双手从方向盘上拿开,上下班时仍然心情不欠佳、疲惫不堪,而是需要睡觉或做到其他的简单的事情,国家经济委员会(National Economic Council)负责人杰弗里齐恩茨(Jeffrey Zients)回应。

他还称之为,高度自动化的车辆将能节省时间和金钱,挽回生命。The statements were the most aggressive signal yet by federal regulators that they see automated car technology as a win for auto safety. 这是联邦监管机构目前为止收到的尤为大力的信号,表达出有它们指出自动汽车技术不利于驾车安全性。Yet having officially endorsed the fast-evolving technology, regulators must now balance the commercial interests of companies including Tesla, Google and Uber with concerns over public safety, especially in light of recent crashes involving semiautonomous cars.不过,既然月反对了这项较慢演变的技术,监管部门现在必需要在特斯拉(Tesla)、谷歌(Google)和优步(Uber)等公司的商业利益与外界对公共安全的担忧之间获得均衡,特别是在是考虑到近期曝光的牵涉到半自动汽车的几起爆胎事故。The policies unveiled on Monday were designed to walk that line. 周一实施的政策即意图超过这种均衡。

In a joint appearance, Mr Zients and Anthony Foxx, secretary of the United States Department of Transportation, released the first guidelines, which outlined safety standards and encouraged uniform rules for the nascent technology. 齐恩茨与联邦运输部长安东尼福克斯(Anthony Foxx)联合出面,公布了首批指导意见,其中所列了安全性标准,并希望对这项新兴技术制定统一规则。The instructions signaled to motorists that automated vehicles would not be a wild west where companies can try anything without oversight, but were also vague enough that automakers and technology companies would not fear over-regulation.指导意见向驾车者收到了信号——自动汽车会是各家公司在没监管的情况下为所欲为的盲区——但也充足模糊不清,会让汽车厂商和科技公司担忧监管过度。

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Driverless and semiautonomous cars have already hit the open roads, forcing regulators to keep up. 无人驾驶与半自动汽车早已上了公路,被迫监管部门要跟上步伐。Tesla, the electric-car maker, has sold tens of thousands of cars with a self-driving feature known as Autopilot. 电动车厂商特斯拉卖出了数千辆具有Autopilot自动驾驶功能的汽车。

The company has been grappling with the fallout from the death in May of a Florida driver who had the car’s Autopilot on, as well as a report last week of another crash in China where the technology was turned on.今年5月,佛罗里达州的一名司机在打开Autopilot功能的情况下车祸自杀身亡,上周又有报导称之为,中国再次发生过一起事故,当时正在用于该项技术。特斯拉正在应付它们的后果。Tesla plans as soon as this week to download new software to its cars. 特斯拉计划最先在本周让旗下汽车产品iTunes新的软件。

The company’s chief executive, Elon Musk, has said the new software will include improvements to Autopilot that could have avoided the fatal accident in May.公司首席执行官埃隆马斯克(Elon Musk)回应,新的软件将包括对Autopilot的改良,可以防止5月的那类可怕事故。Uber, the ride-hailing giant, began trials in Pittsburgh last week to let its most loyal customers order rides from driverless cars through their smartphone app. 上周,叫车服务业的巨头优步开始在匹兹堡测试,让最心目中的顾客通过它们的智能手机应用于叫无人驾驶车辆。Google has been testing self-driving cars in its hometown Mountain View, Calif., and rivals including Apple are also exploring similar technology.谷歌仍然在总部所在的加州山景城测试旗下的自动驾驶汽车,而还包括苹果(Apple)在内的其他一些竞争对手也在探寻类似于技术。

Last year, there were nearly 40,000 deaths in the United States from auto-related accidents, the deadliest for automotive-related deaths since 2008 and the largest year-over-year percentage increase in 50 years, according to the National Safety Council.根据国家安全性管理委员会(National Safety Council)发布的数据,去年,全美有将近4万人病死与汽车有关的事故,是2008年以来丧生人数最低的一年,还获得了50年来仅次于的同比增幅。Karl Brauer, senior editor at Kelley Blue Book, an auto research and valuation company, said the new guidelines strike a balance between ensuring safety as automakers develop self-driving cars and making sure the introduction of lifesaving technology is not delayed unnecessarily.汽车调研与评估公司凯利蓝皮书(Kelley Blue Book)的高级编辑卡尔布劳尔(Karl Brauer)回应,新的揭晓的指导意见权衡了两方面的市场需求:一方面是汽车厂商研发自动驾驶车辆时要确保安全性,另一方面则是保证这种能挽回生命的技术会在没有适当的情况下延期运用。We are in this weird transition, Mr Brauer said. 我们于是以处在失望的过渡期,布劳尔说道。It’s a tough balance for the regulators. 对监管部门来说是个艰苦的均衡。

You want to get this technology out, but you don’t want to move too quickly.你既期望让技术实施,又不期望步子迈得太快。The new guidelines on Monday targeted four main areas. 周一的新指导意见针对四个主要领域。

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The Department of Transportation announced a 15-point safety standard for the design and development of autonomous vehicles; called for states to come up with uniform policies applying to driverless cars; clarified how current regulations can be applied to driverless cars; and opened the door for new regulations on the technology.运输部发布了限于于设计与研发自动车辆的15点安全性标准;敦促各州发售无人驾驶车辆方面的统一政策;回应了目前的监管规定如何限于于无人驾驶车辆;以及为有关这一技术的新监管修筑道路。Currently, driverless cars face a patchwork of state regulations. 目前,无人驾驶车辆面对零散的州级监管规定。

In the last three years, about a dozen states have passed laws that specifically address testing of driverless vehicles. 过去三年里,十余州通过了专门针对测试无人驾驶车辆的法律。Most laws require a licensed driver to be in the car.这类法规中,多数拒绝车里要有获得驾驶证的司机。

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Mr Foxx said states would continue to regulate the licensing of drivers and insurance. 福克斯部长回应,将之后由各州监管驾驶证与保险事宜。But Mr Foxx affirmed the agency’s oversight over the software technology used in driverless cars.不过,他重申由运输部监管在无人驾驶车辆中用于的软件技术。What we are trying to do is avoid a patchwork of state laws, Mr Foxx said.我们是在竭力防止州级法律带给的不成体系的问题,福克斯说道。The federal guidelines were welcomed by auto manufacturers. 此次公布的联邦指导意见受到了汽车生产厂家的青睐。

Ford, which is targeting fully autonomous vehicles by 2021 for ride-sharing, said in a statement that the guidance will help establish the basis for a national framework that enables the safe deployment of autonomous vehicles. 福特的目标是在2021年为拼车服务生产出有全自动汽车。公司发表声明称之为,指导意见将为需要构建安全性利用自动车辆的全国性框架奠下基础。

We also look forward to collaborating with states on areas that complement this national framework.我们还希望与各州合作,联合前进完备这一全国性框架。The government’s endorsement will speed up the rollout of autonomous cars, experts said, potentially within the next five years.专家回应,政府的表态将不会减缓自动汽车的发售,有可能在未来五年内就构建这一点。It helps companies by providing some cover. 它为企业获取了某种维护,从而对它们有所协助。

If a car crashes, courts may look to these guidelines to help us determine what was reasonable and not, said Bryant Walker Smith, a professor at the University of South Carolina.假如出有了车祸,法院可以参考这些指导意见来协助我们确认什么是合理的,什么又不是,南卡罗来纳大学(University of South Carolina)教授布莱恩特沃克史密斯(Bryant Walker Smith)说道。Large automakers in particular have made big strides in the technological development of driverless cars but have been wary of introducing those features too quickly without the backing of federal regulators.特别是在是,大型汽车厂商正在无人驾驶车辆的技术开发上获得长足进步,却又担忧在没联邦监管机构的反对终其一生慢引进这类功能。Big companies love certainty and targets that they need to aim for, said Brad Templeton, a consultant and publisher of Robocars.com.大公司讨厌有确定性和可以让它们去射击的目标,Robocars网站的顾问兼任出版发行人布拉德坦普尔顿(Brad Templeton)说道。

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